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First Information Report

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First Information Report (FIR Report)

First Information Report (FIR) means a written document prepared by the on-duty police officer. This document includes the information provided either by the victim or by any other person regarding the commission of an alleged offense. Further, police commence its investigation based on the FIR lodged. However, nowadays, due to technological advancements, people can easily file an Online FIR instead of visiting the concerned police station in person.

What is a First Information Report?

FIR Report or the First information Report is the first document drafted in criminal proceedings. This document places on record the story of the offense committed from the victim's perspective. Further, FIR acts as a mechanism on the basis of which the police authorities start the process of investigation. Therefore, it is pretty much clear that an FIR or the First information Report plays a significant role in the initiation of criminal proceedings.

Furthermore, an FIR can be filed in both ways, i.e., by providing information about the commission of cognizable after visiting the concerned Police Station in person or by filing an online FIR on the official portal of the respective state.

What is an Online FIR Report?

The term file FIR online refers to an online system for registering or lodging FIR. The police departments of different states introduced this mechanism. The reason behind the introduction of online FIR was to save money, time, and top of all the Police harassment which people used to face whenever they used to visit a police station for filing a complaint.

Lastly, it is pertinent to note that, at times, the concept of online FIR Report is also known an e-FIR.

Is there any Fixed Format of Filing FIR?

No, there is no such prescribed format of filing an FIR. Further, one can either write or give information orally to the police officer about the commission of a cognizable offense. Moreover, a police officer or the officer in charge of a police station is duty-bound to reduce the information provided by the informant into an FIR by writing it.

Further, it shall be taken into consideration that the reason behind not prescribing a written format is to protect the interest of an illiterate person as otherwise he would not have been able to file an FIR.

Who can File a First Information Report (FIR)?

The following listed are eligible to file or lodge an FIR in India –

  • Victim or the Aggrieved Person.
  • Witness or anyone with the knowledge of Crime happened.
  • Police Official himself on a Suo Motu basis.

Can the Details of FIR be changed?

No, once an individual had registered or lodged an FIR, then the contents of the said FIR are not qualified to be changed. However, one can provide additional information to the police officer later on at any point.

Can a Telephonic Conversation be Converted into an FIR?

Yes, as per the judgment passed in the case Tehal Singh v. State of Rajasthan, 1989 HC, a telephonic message given to a police officer or to the officer in charge of the police station can be converted into an FIR only if the following listed conditions are fulfilled –

  • The information is given by an ascertained person.
  • The information provided has been reduced into writing by the concerned police officer or the officer in charge of the Police Station.
  • The information provided discloses the commission of a cognizable offense.

If all the conditions mentioned above are fulfilled, then only a telephonic message or a cryptic message be converted into an FIR.

Why was there a Need for Introducing the Concept of Online FIR Report?

Earlier, the procedure of registering an FIR Report (First Information Report) for every case would engage in both a lot of energy and time of the staff. Moreover, due to a shortage of staff, the police stations were used to be overloaded and burdened with paperwork. As a result, the basic courtesy and public response get unheeded, leading to people complaining and criticizing of police rudeness and apathy.

Hence, the mechanism of online filing of First Information Report has benefited not only the normal citizens but also the police officials as they are freed of public pressure, which in return ensures an improved FIR follow up and faster response to complaints filed.

What are the Advantages of Online FIR?

The following listed are the advantages or the benefits annexed with the concept of filling an FIR online –

  • With the help of online FIR, people are now able to register or lodge their cases easily, as compared to a case registered in Police Station.
  • At times, people do feel anxiety and nervousness while going to the Police Station. Hence, after the introduction of this technique, they are now able to register FIR very easily that, too, without visiting the Police Station.
  • By seeing the atrocities and hardships faced by women nowadays, registering an FIR online will be very easy and useful for women.
  • After the introduction of this mechanism, no one would ever face Police Negligence and Avoidance.

What is the Procedure for Lodging an FIR?

The following listed are the steps included in the process of lodging an FIR –

  • Step 1 - Visit the nearest police station and then explain all the details regarding the offense committed either to the police officer or officer-in-charge of Police Station.
  • Step 2 – The concerned informant can either tell verbally tell the police officer or can write down the details about the incident himself.
  • Step 3 – If in case the informant verbally tells the police, then the officer must reduce the information by writing it down. The concerned Police Officer is also required then to make an entry in the Daily Diary or General Diary.
  • Step 4 - If an individual has submitted a written complaint, then he or she must carry two copies of it. As out of two copies, one will be for the on-duty police officer, and the other one will be returned to the informant.
  • Step 5 - The police officer is then required to go through all the provided details once an informant submits the information.
  • Step 6 – After that, the police officer will read over all the information recorded to the concerned informant.
  • Step 7 – The informant is then required to sign the FIR, once the police have duly recorded the information.
  • Step 8It shall be taken into consideration that the concerned informant should sign the report only after verifying and cross-checking that the information recorded by the police offer is according to the details given by him.
  • Step 9 - A free copy of the FIR filed will be given to the informant along with the date of FIR, FIR number, and the name of the police station.
  • Step 10 – It shall be taken into consideration by the informant to ensure that both the copies of FIR are duly stamped. Further, the stamp on the FIR must bear a DD Number (Daily Diary Number). As, it acts as a proof that the police officials received the respective complaint. Moreover, in case the informant loses his or her copy, then he can use these provided details to access the online FIR for free.

Where can one File an Online FIR?

The concerned individual can file an online FIR just by visiting the official police web portal or site of the respective state. Like, if an individual wants to file an e-FIR in Delhi, then he or she is required to visit www.delhipolice.nic.in. Whereas if in case an individual wants to file an e-FIR in Uttar Pradesh, then he or she is required to visit www.uppolice.gov.in.

Further, it is pertinent to take into consideration that the online system for filing e-FIR varies from state to state as every state has its own pattern of filing an e-FIR. However, there are some states which still at present do not have the facility of filing an online FIR.

What is the Evidentiary Value of an FIR?

F.I.R. or a First Information Report is a significant and essential piece of evidence as it includes the first version of the incident that happened. However, it cannot be considered as a substantive piece of evidence as the same is neither recorded on oath nor tested by the cross-examination.

The following listed are the aspects where an FIR can be used –

  • FIR can be used to Corroborate u/s 157 of CrPc
  • FIR can be used to Contradict u/s 145 of CrPc
  • FIR forms the Part of the Same Transaction which is connected with the Fact in Issue or the Relevant Fact, u/s 6 of IEA
  • FIR can be used to explain and describe the Conduct of the Accused u/s 8 of IEA
  • FIR can be used as an Omission of an Important Fact (Plea of Alibi) u/s 11 of IEA
  • FIR can be used as a Dying Declaration u/s 32 of IEA
  • FIR can be used for Refreshing Memory u/s 159 and 160 of IEA
  • FIR can be used to identify the Accused, Witnesses, and the Place and Time of Occurrence u/s 9 of IEA
  • can be both Confessional and Non-Confessional, in case it is Confessional then hit by section 25 of IEA
  • FIR is Non-Confessional in Nature then hit by section 21 of IEA
  • FIR leads to the discovery of some object then hit by section 27 of IEA

Conclusion

FIR or the First Information Report has a great significance in each criminal litigation as it sets the criminal law in motion. It’s great that Online FIR system has also been launched which is making people life convenient. Like Physical filing only, for Online FIR also, needs to provide detail of incidents, accused and victim. And then one application number will be launched. Moreover, FIR, being an information first in point of time, is considered as a valuable piece of evidence in any criminal proceeding either for corroborating evidence or for contradicting the witnesses. Moreover, besides the prevention of crimes along with the maintenance of law and order in the society, FIR may also direct to a successful conclusion of a criminal trial.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • 1. Can anybody file an FIR?

    A) Any individual who has information regarding the commission of any cognizable offense is eligible to lodge an FIR.
    B) However, it is significant and noteworthy to take into consideration that it is neither compulsory nor mandatory that the person giving information must either be the victim or the eye-witness himself.
    C) Moreover, the police officer also has the autonomy to lodge or register an FIR on the Suo Motu basis, if he knows the commission of some cognizable offense.

  • 2. What all informations need to be given during online FIR?

    The following listed are the type of information and details which may be asked by the informant -
    a) Complainant’s Name
    b) Father’s or Mother’s Name
    c) Complainant’s Address
    d) Complainant’s Mobile number
    e) Complainant’s E-mail ID
    f) Place where the concerned Incident took place.
    g) Date of Incident
    h) Time of the Incident
    i) Description of the Particular Case, or any other details

  • 3. Where can one File an Online FIR?

    The concerned individual can file an online FIR just by visiting the official police web portal or site of the respective state.

  • 4. When is there a Need to File an Online FIR?

    An e-FIR can be filed or lodged only for the commission of the cognizable offenses. The term cognizable offenses include the grave or a high degree offense such as murder, dowry death, rape, and kidnap, etc. In these cases, the police have the power or the autonomy to arrest without warrant. Further, in the case of non-cognizable offenses, instead of e-FIR, an online complaint is filed.

  • 5. Can anybody file FIR in any police station?

    Yes, it can be filed in any police station

  • 6. How can I get FIR in police station?

    The procedure of filing an FIR is prescribed in Section 154 of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973. commission of a cognizable offence is given orally, the police must write it down. information or making a complaint to demand that the information recorded by the police is read over to you.

 

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